Archive for the ‘Mexico’ Tag

America, Land of the Brown

Wednesday, August 21st, 2013

I warned about a resurgence of heroin use, following this year’s bumper opium crop in Afghanistan, in Smacktastic Britain, and unfortunately this may be already starting to come true, with reports of presentations of new heroin users at services (too young to remember the stigma of the last wave) and increased purity levels of the drug. But, given that there has been an international drought for the last three years, I guess this could just be business getting back to normal. And it will be another few months, possibly into early next year, before that crop reaches our shores and heroin use becomes a tempting prospect again – and people like the drug so much they start dying all over the place.

There has, however, been somewhat more of a significant increase in America. Fox News report that heroin use is “on the rise: cheap, available and out of control”, and the Wall Street Journal state that “heroin use in the U.S. is soaring, especially in rural areas”.

Fox’s Dr Manny Alvarez makes the claim that this increase is due to the last decade of prescription drug abuse, as painkillers such as Vicodin and oxycodone have been dished out like sweets and created large numbers of opiate addicts. The report also spells heroin with an ‘e’ on the end, claims that it causes miscarriage, and demands that America starts another War On Drugs – so I’m guessing we can take its contents with a pinch of salt – but it remains however an interesting suggestion that America’s increase is heroin use may be self-created. This claim is supported by other reports, which claim that OxyContin (the market name for oxycodone) has been refomulated to make it less abusable (by making it harder to crush and pastey, so that snorting or injecting is more difficult), and that, compared to the price of buying prescription meds, heroin is by far the cheaper option for those who find themselves dependent.

The Wall Street Journal, who also support the idea of a vast shift from prescribed opiates to painkillers, give some insightful and scary facts on the country’s growing heroin problem – seizures from the Mexico border have quadrupled between 2008 and 2012, and overdoses are going through the roof. Some of the rural communities are heroin-naive, most of them have no service provision, and heroin purity is at its highest in years, making overdose an inevitable consequence. Even more headline-grabbing – these medicated kids are white and middle-class.

So maybe we haven’t got as much to worry about in the UK as we first thought. The US market is prepped, desperate, and think that heroin is a bargain. If I was a drugs baron, I know where I’d be taking my bumper crop. Something tells me that the horrendous US drug overdose death rate of someone every nineteen minutes might be about to get a lot, lot worse…

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Santos speaks out

Wednesday, June 5th, 2013

While we are all whining on about the impact of drugs on our communities, and the effects on individuals, South America and Mexico continue to deal with the shocking human cost of producing and distributing cocaine, methamphetamine, cannabis and other drugs. Much like the opium situation in Afghanistan, cocaine and cannabis are cash-crops – but unlike Afghanistan, it’s not just the fluffy types at the UN wanting the curb the trade. Pressure on South American and Mexican governments from the USA to stop the export of cocaine and other drugs has meant tough penalties for those manufacturing and trafficking, because failure to adhere to these US-enforced policies means risking international relations with their closest, richest neighbours and vital trade partners. This has caused a full-on war between the authorities and organised criminals, leading to death rates that surpass most genocides. In Mexico alone, between 2006 and 2011, it is thought that around 60,000 were killed or ‘disappeared’, many of whom remain unidentified after being found in mass ‘narco-graves‘.

In an unusual (and strangely under-reported) move, Columbian president Juan Manuel Santos has this week published an article in The Guardian’s ‘Comment Is Free’, outlining the main points of a report produced by the Organisation of American States (OAS) in partnership with Oxford University. The report suggests ways in which the issue could be tackled, not from a moral perspective (ie what should happen) but from a pragmatic standpoint (what could happen). Santos states that this new set of approaches broadens the debate past the polarised ‘warriors’ and ‘legalisers’ arguments – after all, this is not Star Wars, there is no good versus evil, and neither extreme offers valid ideas to vastly improve the lives of ordinary people.

The scenarios proposed in the report, which has been released as the OAS leaders meet this week in Guatemala, involve providing better health, education and employment opportunities to offer real economic alternatives to those embroiled in drug production and trafficking and their communities; strengthening public institutions to improve the welfare of citizens; better (and, I would imagine, less hierarchical) co-operation with international partners; and redirecting budgets currently spent on international priorities (law enforcement in an attempt to stop the drugs being produced and exported) to local priorities. Clearly some of these approaches will require international support to be implemented – as long as the US and the rest of us keep pushing for the problems to be contained, the internal wars and consequential deaths will continue.

However, the headline-grabbing proposal made in the report is to look at alternatives to criminalisation, starting with the legalisation of cannabis. It seems to me that the OAS have seen an opportunity to use the current cannabis debate in the US, which has resulted in Colorado and Washington legalising the drug, cleverly to their advantage. The report suggests South America and Mexico follow suit, and so appears to be jumping on the US bandwagon. After all, it would be highly hypocritical for the US to claim that the rights they offer their citizens were not applicable to the citizens of their neighbouring countries. But it also uses the US model to politely point out that the problems the War On Drugs causes the USA might cause one or two little problems in their countries too – and they don’t just have over-run prisons and drug treatment centres, they have pits of nameless dead.

Luckily, President Santos does seem to be getting some parallel support from this side off the pond. A letter from a group of MPs and celebrities to our Government was published in The Times this week, signed not only by candyfloss-haired minted powerhouse Richard Branson, marathon-shagging squealer Sting, and you-get-loads-of-sex-how? lanky slime-ball Russell Brand, but also politicians from the Conservatives, Labour, and the Liberal Democrats. The movement is being led by Caroline Lucas of the Green Party, whose personal stake in the matter may be the destruction of vast areas of rainforest as chemical byproducts of drug production are illegally dumped. The letter questions the validity of the War On Drugs and asks how the Government can justify their £3b a year spending on their current approach, suggesting that possibly an evidenced approach might be a better use of public money. (You know, try to see if something works before you spend our hard-earned cash implementing it. Just a thought.)

Whilst the letter does not make direct reference to the situation in America, it is yet another high-profile attack on existing drug policy – and only adds to the ever-increasing international momentum for things to change. It seems to me that we are on the cusp of the greatest social paradigm shift since the abolition of slavery. But then I am a bit of a drama queen.

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