Archive for the ‘public health’ Tag

What’s morality got to do with drugs?

Friday, September 13th, 2013

My beliefs about the criminalisation of drug use have changed over the last few months of researching and writing this blog. Although I always supported a health agenda, I spent years working alongside criminal justice agencies and, in essence, being part of the machine that maintained the War On Drugs. Drugs caused harm – that was for sure – and whilst I insisted on working for health services and within a harm reduction agenda, I still had to contribute drug tests and pre-sentence statements to criminal justice organisations on behalf of people I didn’t really think were doing anything wrong. Besides, most of the criminal justice drugs services were part of the NHS. The whole agenda was blurred – and the lines between health and justice disappeared under the weight of morality. As we all know, drugs are bad, kids.

But let’s face it – they’re not. They’re just drugs. If it’s a moral compass we’re using, some of them, such as anaesthetic, are definitely good. But this isn’t the issue I want to discuss here – I want to showcase a couple of the best resources I have found which outline the damage caused by unquestioningly taking this legal and moral standpoint on drug use.

Count The Costs has published an Alternative World Drug Report to coincide with the UN’s Global Commission On Drugs Policy (which I wrote about in The War On Drugs versus livers, and focuses on the public health implications of socially excluding drug users). Instead of relying on self-reporting by international governments, the Alternative Report collates its own data, looking at the unintended negative consequences of the War On Drugs.

It is organised into seven main areas of damage that is caused by the continuing approach taken by drugs policies across the world:

undermining development and security, fuelling conflict
threatening public health, spreading disease and death
undermining human rights
promoting stigma and discrimination
creating crime, enriching criminals
deforestation and pollution
wasting billions on drug law enforcement

For those of you who haven’t considered some of these arguments before, or if there is a particular issue that catches your attention, do have a look at this website. It really is the best, most comprehensive single resource I have seen, and isn’t so arrogant as to presume it has the answers – it merely forces the question.

A more capsule summary of the War On Drugs is available from Peter Watt of Sheffield University, whose recent piece on the upcoming legalisation of cannabis in Uruguay identifies the main motivations behind the problems in South America, the continent most damaged by the US-driven criminalisation agenda. Uruguay is an experiment worth watching – and it seems that the countries most crippled but the War On Drugs are starting to take matters into their own hands and make some interesting moves when it comes to drug policy (as previously discussed in Santos speaks out).

A specialist in the South American drug wars, Peter also identifies the value to the US economy of perpetuating the War On Drugs, by generating the private prison industry. Quoting journalist Chris Hedges, “Poor people, especially those of colour, are worth nothing to corporations and private contractors if they are on the street. In jails and prisons, however, they each can generate corporate revenues of $30,000 to $40,000 a year”.

This sentiment is shared in Eugene Jarecki’s excellent documentary, The House I Live In, which looks at the impact of the War On Drugs on the USA’s poorest, predominantly black, communities and asks who this system is benefitting. Despite drug use being proportional across racial groups in the US, almost all those incarcerated for drug offences are black – one in three young black men spend time in prison in the US.

I hope some of you will look at these links, and that, if you find them interesting, you will share them. This is not a small problem – areas of Asia, South America and Africa are being destroyed by this nonsensical battle, where poverty is exploited by organised criminals using fear and violence – and the continents providing the target markets, North America, Australasia and Europe, are also seeing their poorest and most excluded communities injured by the trade. Drug use isn’t bad – whether it is smoking crack or having a quiet pint on a Friday, we all do it to some degree, and until the moral and criminal precursors are removed from the debate, a practical, just solution will remain evasive.

Advertisements

Austerity gives it Greek-style

Tuesday, May 21st, 2013

As most, I fear the fate of our beloved NHS under the Shithead Coalition. I have previously suggested that current Government policy (punish the poor for the mistakes of the minted) may well be leaving the door wide open to another heroin epidemic, and we already see the country flooded with novel psychoactive substances such as MCat. Well it seems that the nightmarish repeat of the 80s unravelling before our eyes in Britain is already taking place in Greece.

A new ‘cocaine of the poor’ is sweeping the poverty-stricken country. At €2 a hit, and reportedly a variant of crystal meth, ‘shisha’ sounds likely to me to be MCat by another name. Similarly, it brings aggression, violence, mental health problems, and burns users from the inside out. And as with MCat, it is cheap, easily accessible, and currently has ripe pickings of the desperate poor.

And who can blame people for wanting some escapism. With Greek youth unemployment apparently at 64% and a total of 400,000 families without any income at all (not to mention those who have jobs but aren’t getting paid, or are earning so little that they are unable to sustain their families), it is no surprise that suicides have increased by over 60%. Prostitution and homelessness have also massively increased – and I don’t know about you, but if I was reduced to living a brutal life on the streets, I think I’d prefer to be the nutter than the nutted, battered than the battered. Shisha use could be seen as a strategic line of defence.

In terms of the back-drop to the growing drug problem in Greece, I have been dipping in and out of an amazing blog (a really excellent example of why the Internet and its self-publishing is a wonderful thing) which challenges pretty much everything written in the mainstream media, and uncovers some fairly scary truths about the state of the world and those running it. The author, John Ward, writes about the ‘Troika’ – European Commission, International Monetary Fund, and European Central Bank – crippling Greece’s economy by forcing austerity measures. His comparisons between the Troika’s policies and those of the Fascists during the Second World War are genuinely frightening. John has exposed the corruption within the capitalist structures of Europe, and warns that, as in the past, ‘austerity’ can be a label given to international looting by those in power. And last time round, he says, when the Nazis stole Greek resources as part of ‘German reconstruction costs’, 40,000 Greeks starved to death.

So what does this mean for the Greek people now, and are there lessons we can learn? A new book, as reported in the Guardian this week, looks specifically at the health impact of austerity measures, and brings the tag line “Recessions can hurt, but austerity kills”. Strong words – but they are backed up with hard facts by this Yale, Oxford and Cambridge-educated expert in health economics, David Stuckler, who says that Greece is facing a public health disaster. With a reduction to the health budget of 40%, he quotes the Greek health minister, “These aren’t cuts with a scalpel, they’re cuts with a butcher’s knife”. And the cuts weren’t made under the guidance of the medical profession but by the financially-motivated Troika. They are not even representative of financial requirements being met by other countries, but are in fact much harsher than the cuts being imposed in other areas of Europe. It seems that John Ward’s shocking comparisons may be more accurate than is comfortable to acknowledge – and that the concepts of public health and indeed humanity appear to have been lost in a calculated move for money and power.

And the results for Greek health provision so far? Hospitals without surgical gloves, pharmacies without necessary medication, and seriously diminished resources to support the ever-increasing population of substance users. Stuckler has spoken to drug services in Athens to see how close they are to meeting World Health Organisation guidance that 200 clean needles should be made available for each IV drug user every year – and the current availability per person is 3. No wonder then that cases of HIV have shown a 200% increase (which is probably a conservative estimate given that testing is no doubt harder to access, and will not be helped by the increasingly desperate prostitution trade), and I dread to think of the rates of hepatitis C, venous damage and bacterial infections as people continue to use drugs without access to harm reduction advice and clean equipment.

As Professor Stuckler points out using multiple examples from history, destroying welfare, healthcare and employment programmes is never a positive move for the economy, aside from the human cost. A country that fails to invest in its people has not the strength to recover – very much like a person, there needs to be belief, hope and investment for recovery to take place. And if austerity was a treatment programme being clinically trialled, “It would have been discontinued” says Stuckler. “The evidence of its deadly side-effects – of the profound effects on economic choices on health – is overwhelming”.

So, just to bring it back home.. Cuts to public services: check. Increase in unemployment: check. Money being taken from the poor and disabled to pay for the rich: check. Increase of depression presentations (especially in the north of England where unemployment is highest and suicide is on the rise): check. Easy access to dangerous, damaging new drugs and a bumper opium crop due in from Afghanistan: check. Right then, we’re all set! Addiction is the new black, I’d get taxing the stuff if I were you, David.

%d bloggers like this: